What are the causes of flooding in Nigeria. Every year properties worth millions are destroyed in some states in Nigeria by flood. Flooding occurs as an overflow of water from water bodies such as lake, rivers or ocean in which the water overflows resulting in some of that water leaving its normal boundaries, or it may occur due to an accumulation of rainwater on saturated ground in an areal flood. In this article we are going to look into the major causes of flooding in Nigeria.
Floods are major disasters affecting many countries of the world annually especially in most flood plain areas. Floods do not only damage properties and endanger the lives of human and animals but also produce other secondary effects like outbreak of diseases such as cholera and malaria as well.
Nigeria’s Hydrological Services Agency (NIHSA) has warned communities in Kebbi, Niger, Kwara, Kogi, Anambra, Delta and Bayelsa states that increasingly high river levels could cause major flooding.
Major Causes Of Flooding
1. Heavy Rainfall
Unusually heavy weather at the source of a river can lead to vast amounts of water draining into the water table. The water table of a river is the area from which it gathers water, so if an unnaturally high level of water is draining into this area, this will lead to similarly high levels of water in the river.
As more and more of the river’s tributary streams join the river, this effect is amplified until the amount of water reaches a critical level; the banks – or the natural flood plain – cannot hold such a volume and it spills over. This often occurs at lower reaches of a river in areas of habitation, causing extensive damage.
2. Dam Failure
Dam failure also causes flooding Nigeria. A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or slows down the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundments. landowners further up the stretch of a river erecting illegal dams to protect their farmland can have catastrophic effects farther down the river when this unalleviated pressure is brought to bear on people’s homes in more densely populated areas.
3. Natural Disaster
Natural disaster also causes flooding in Nigeria. Major trauma at sea, such as earthquakes or even heavy coastal rock falls, cause enormous walls of water known as tsunamis, which can sweep across huge expanses of ocean at over 600 miles per hour. These enormous waves cause an enormous amount of destruction when they come into contact with a landmass and cause catastrophic flooding. The sheer amount of water contained in a tsunami, combined with the velocity of the strike, means that these types of disasters cause enormous loss of life. A tsunami was blamed for wiping out the ancient Minoan civilization on the Greek Island of Crete, while the Southeast Asian tsunami of 2004 left 150,000 people dead or homeless. In 2011 a tsunami struck Japan, leaving more than 10,000 people unaccounted for in one coastal town alone.