What Did Blaise Pascal Invent?

What Did Blaise Pascal Invent?
December 23
18:57 2017

What Did Blaise Pascal Invent?…

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Pascal Blaise was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector in Rouen. Pascal’s earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where he made important contributions to the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum by generalising the work of Evangelista Torricelli.

Pascal was born in Clermont-Ferrand, which is in France’s Auvergne region. He lost his mother, Antoinette Begon, at the age of three.

His father, Étienne Pascal (1588–1651), who also had an interest in science and mathematics, was a local judge and member of the “Noblesse de Robe”. Pascal had two sisters, the younger Jacqueline and the elder Gilberte.

Pascal also wrote in defence of the scientific method.

Pascal had poor health, especially after the age of 18, and he died just two months after his 39th birthday

What Did Blaise Pascal Invent

Pascal’s work in the fields of the study of hydrodynamics and hydrostatics centered on the principles of hydraulic fluids. His inventions include the hydraulic press (using hydraulic pressure to multiply force) and the syringe. He proved that hydrostatic pressure depends not on the weight of the fluid but on the elevation difference. He demonstrated this principle by attaching a thin tube to a barrel full of water and filling the tube with water up to the level of the third floor of a building. This caused the barrel to leak, in what became known as Pascal’s barrel experiment.

By 1647, Pascal had learned of Evangelista Torricelli’s experimentation with barometers. Having replicated an experiment that involved placing a tube filled with mercury upside down in a bowl of mercury, Pascal questioned what force kept some mercury in the tube and what filled the space above the mercury in the tube. At the time, most scientists contended that, rather than a vacuum, some invisible matter was present. This was based on the Aristotelian notion that creation was a thing of substance, whether visible or invisible; and that this substance was forever in motion. Furthermore, “Everything that is in motion must be moved by something,” Aristotle declared. Therefore, to the Aristotelian trained scientists of Pascal’s time, a vacuum was an impossibility. How so? As proof it was pointed out:

  • Light passed through the so-called “vacuum” in the glass tube.
  • Aristotle wrote how everything moved, and must be moved by something.
  • Therefore, since there had to be an invisible “something” to move the light through the glass tube, there was no vacuum in the tube. Not in the glass tube or anywhere else. Vacuums – the absence of any and everything – were simply an impossibility.

Following more experimentation in this vein, in 1647 Pascal produced Experiences nouvelles touchant le vide (“New experiments with the vacuum”), which detailed basic rules describing to what degree various liquids could be supported by air pressure. It also provided reasons why it was indeed a vacuum above the column of liquid in a barometer tube. This work was followed by Récit de la grande expérience de l’équilibre des liqueurs (“Account of the great experiment on equilibrium in liquids”) published in 1648.

On 19 September 1648, after many months of Pascal’s friendly but insistent prodding, Florin Périer, husband of Pascal’s elder sister Gilberte, was finally able to carry out the fact-finding mission vital to Pascal’s theory. The account, written by Périer, reads:

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